Hero resources desktop X2
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea


The links below redirect you to further information related to questionnaires used in the screening and diagnosis of OSA.

A high pre-test probability of symptomatic, moderate-severe OSA is confirmed by ESS score ≥8 AND OSA50 score ≥5 OR STOP-Bang score ≥3.

The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) determines subjective daytime sleepiness by asking individuals to rate their chance of dozing off in eight situations (Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness.1

The OSA50 questionnaire was developed by Australian sleep medicine researchers and is specifically designed for use in general practice to identify patients at high risk of moderate-severe OSA.2

The STOP-Bang questionnaire can be used to screen for the presence of OSA. It comprises 4 questions (Snoring loudly, Tired, Observed stop breathing, high blood Pressure) and 4 examination or demographic features (BMI >35 kg/m2, Age >50 years, Neck size >40cm, male Gender).3

The Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) is a sleep apnoea screening questionnaire used to identify the low to high risk of sleep disordered breathing.4

Up to 50% of OSA patients report co-morbid insomnia symptoms that can be managed with non-pharmacological cognitive behavioural treatment for insomnia. The Insomnia Severity Index is a 7-item self-report measure of global insomnia severity. A score of ≥15 indicates ‘clinically significant insomnia’ in the presence of OSA.5, 6

The links below redirect you to the Assessing fitness to drive document.

Untreated OSA is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents, especially single-vehicle accidents at night. Austroads and the National Transport Commission have produced medical standards for licensing and clinical management guidelines for commercial and private vehicle drivers.


AHI - Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index
BBTi - Brief Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia
BMI - Body Mass Index (kg/m2)
BQ - Berlin Questionnaire
CBTi - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia
CELL - Coblation Endoscopic Lingual Lightening
COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
CVA - Cerebrovascular Accident
CPAP - Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
CSA - Central Sleep Apnoea
DASS - Depression Anxiety Stress Scale
DBAS - Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep
DBP - Diastolic Blood Pressure
DIMS - Difficulties Initiating and/or Maintaining Sleep
DISE - Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy
DISS - Daytime Insomnia Symptom Scale
ENT - Ear Nose and Throat
ESS - Epworth Sleepiness Scale
FOSQ - Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire
FSH - Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
FTP - Friedman Tong Position
GP - General Practitioner
HANDI - RACGP Handbook of Non-Drug Interventions
HGNS - Hypoglossal Herve Htimulation
ISI - Insomnia Severity Index
K10 - Kessler Psychological Distress Scale
MAD - Mandibular Advancement Device
MAS - Mandibular Advancement Rplint
MBS - Medicare Benefits Schedule
MMA - Maxillomandibular Advancement Surgery
MRA - Mandibular Repositioning Appliance
ODI - Oxygenation Desaturation Index
OSA - Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
PLMD - Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
PT - Positional Therapy
PTSD - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
PSG - Polysomnography
QSQ - Quebec Sleep Questionnaire
REM - Rapid Eye Movement
RFTB - Radiofrequency Thermotherapy of the Tongue Base
SBP - Systolic Blood Pressure
SCI - Sleep Condition Indicator
SE - Sleep Efficiency
SF36 - Short-Form (36) Health Survey
SMILE - Submucosal Minimally Invasive Lingual Excision
SNRIs - Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors
SOL - Sleep Onset Latency
SSRI - Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
TFTs - Thyroid Function Tests
TIB - Time In Bed
TORS - Transoral Robotic Surgery
TST - Total Sleep Time
UPPP - Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
WASO - Wake After Sleep Onset

Quick links


  1. Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep 1991;14(6):540-5
  2. CL Chai-Coetzer, et al. A simplified model of screening questionnaire and home monitoring for obstructive sleep apnea in primary care. Thorax 2011;66:213-9
  3. Chung F, et al. High STOP-Bang score indicates a high probability of obstructive sleep apnoea. Br J Anaesth. 2012;108:768-7
  4. Netzer NC, et al. Using the Berlin Questionnaire to identify patients at risk for the sleep apnea syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131(7):485-91
  5. Sweetman A, et al. Cognitive and behavioral therapy for insomnia increases the use of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea participants with co-morbid insomnia: A randomized clinical trial. Sleep. 2019;42(12)
  6. Sweetman A, et al. Co-Morbid Insomnia and Sleep Apnea (COMISA): Prevalence, Consequences, Methodological Considerations, and Recent Randomized Controlled Trials. Brain Sci. 2019;9(12):371