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Sleep Health Primary Care Resources

About the authors

About the research

The resources provide evidence-based information to assist primary care practitioners involved in the assessment and management of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and chronic insomnia / insomnia disorder.

The evidence-based recommendations were developed according to the published peer-reviewed literature and the level of evidence for treatment is based on GRADE ratings.

About the authors

Nicholas zwar

Professor Nicholas Zwar

Executive Dean, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University

Nick is a practicing GP and a leader in primary care research on prevention and management of chronic illness, with a focus on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

Stijn soenen

Associate Professor Stijn Soenen

Academic researcher at Bond University and The University of Adelaide

Stijn has an interest in sleep health with a focus on obstructive sleep apnoea and insomnia, and type 2 diabetes, obesity and undernutrition.

The reference group includes members with expertise in respiratory and sleep medicine, primary care, psychology and pharmacy.

Members were:

Professor Robert Adams

Emeritus Professor Doug McEvoy

Professor Nigel Stocks

Associate Professor Ching Li Chai-Coetzer

Emeritus Professor Leon Lack

Dr Alexander Sweetman

Dr Nicole Lovato

Associate Professor Andrew Vakulin

Professor Bandana Saini

Dr Alan Young

Professor Richard Reed

Associate Professor Sutapa Mukherjee

Associate Professor Christopher Gordon

We want your feedback on this resource!

Contact: alexander.sweetman@sleep.org.au

The national Centre for Sleep Health Services Research acknowledges funding from the Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council


AHI - Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index
BBTi - Brief Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia
BMI - Body Mass Index (kg/m2)
BQ - Berlin Questionnaire
CBTi - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia
CELL - Coblation Endoscopic Lingual Lightening
COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
CVA - Cerebrovascular Accident
CPAP - Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
CSA - Central Sleep Apnoea
DASS - Depression Anxiety Stress Scale
DBAS - Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep
DBP - Diastolic Blood Pressure
DIMS - Difficulties Initiating and/or Maintaining Sleep
DISE - Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy
DISS - Daytime Insomnia Symptom Scale
ENT - Ear Nose and Throat
ESS - Epworth Sleepiness Scale
FOSQ - Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire
FSH - Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
FTP - Friedman Tong Position
GP - General Practitioner
HANDI - RACGP Handbook of Non-Drug Interventions
HGNS - Hypoglossal Herve Htimulation
ISI - Insomnia Severity Index
K10 - Kessler Psychological Distress Scale
MAD - Mandibular Advancement Device
MAS - Mandibular Advancement Rplint
MBS - Medicare Benefits Schedule
MMA - Maxillomandibular Advancement Surgery
MRA - Mandibular Repositioning Appliance
ODI - Oxygenation Desaturation Index
OSA - Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
PLMD - Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
PT - Positional Therapy
PTSD - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
PSG - Polysomnography
QSQ - Quebec Sleep Questionnaire
REM - Rapid Eye Movement
RFTB - Radiofrequency Thermotherapy of the Tongue Base
SBP - Systolic Blood Pressure
SCI - Sleep Condition Indicator
SE - Sleep Efficiency
SF36 - Short-Form (36) Health Survey
SMILE - Submucosal Minimally Invasive Lingual Excision
SNRIs - Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors
SOL - Sleep Onset Latency
SSRI - Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
TFTs - Thyroid Function Tests
TIB - Time In Bed
TORS - Transoral Robotic Surgery
TST - Total Sleep Time
UPPP - Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
WASO - Wake After Sleep Onset

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